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Table 1 Cardiotoxic Effects of Selected Chemotherapeutic Agents in Animals

From: Spontaneously occurring cardiovascular lesions in commonly used laboratory animals

Drug Class Types of Alterations Animal Model Reference
Lapatinib Protein kinase inhibitor Myocardial necrosis C57BL/6 mouse [7]
Nilotinib Tyrosine kinase inhibitor Increased heart weight Sprague-Dawley rat [8]
Imatinib Tyrosine kinase inhibitor Cytoplasmic vacuolization, myofibrillar loss, necrosis Sprague-Dawley rat [9]
Sunitinib Tyrosine kinase inhibitor Capillary proliferation, vacuolization, pericardial inflammation, age-related increased myocyte size Sprague-Dawley rat [10]
Sunitinib Tyrosine kinase inhibitor Mild vascular congestion ICR mouse [11]
Cyclosporine A Immunosuppressant Myocardial edema, inflammation, disorganization, necrosis Sprague-Dawley rat [12]
Doxorubicin Anthracycline Atrial thrombosis, myocyte vacuolization and degeneration; interstitial inflammation ICR mouse Wistar rat Beagle dog New Zealand rabbit Miniature pig [13,15,16]
Sorafenib Tyrosine kinase inhibitor Swollen vacuolated myocytes; myofibrillar disorganization Mouse [17]
Cisplatin Inorganic platinum complex Decreased heart weight, enhanced angiogenesis C57 mouse [18]
Cisplatin Inorganic platinum complex Myocyte necrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolization; hemorrhage, interstitial edema Wistar rat [19, 20]
Cyclophosphamide Alkylating agent Interstitial myocardial hemorrhage, multifocal myofiber necrosis, inflammation, vascular endothelial damage, pericarditis, valvulitis Rat [21, 22]
Cyclophosphamide Alkylating agent Hemorrhagic myocarditis Rabbit [23]
5-Fluorouracil Antimetabolite Interstitial hemorrhage, multifocal myocyte necrosis, inflammation, small blood vessel inflammation, valvulitis, pericarditis Rat [24]
5-Fluorouracil Antimetabolite Chronic left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial necrosis, thickening intra-myocardial arterioles; acute hemorrhagic myocardial infarct, spasms of proximal coronary arteries Rabbit [25]
Interleukin-2 T cell growth factor Endothelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, perivascular inflammation, myocardial necrosis Wistar rat [26]
Vincristine Tubulin binding Diffuse ventricular myocyte degeneration and necrosis; vacuoles and eosinophilic granules present in degenerating myocytes Sprague-Dawley rat [27]
Carfilzomib Protease inhibitor Myocardial degeneration, myofibrillar cytoplasmic vacuoles, bands of hypochromatic cells with pyknotic nuclei, inflammation Rat [28]