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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: Early- and late anthracycline-induced cardiac dysfunction: echocardiographic characterization and response to heart failure therapy

Demographics Overall (n = 92) Early (n = 49) Late (n = 43) p-value
Male 68 (74) 38 (78) 30 (70)  
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 24.5 (4.5) 24.8 (4.5) 24.1 (4.5) 0.422
Body Surface Area (m2) 1.9 (0.2) 1.9 (0.2) 1.9 (0.2) 0.536
Age at start cancer therapy (years) 48.2 (18.1) 52.2 (15.8) 43.7 (19.2) 0.024
Age at diagnosis ACD (years) 51.6 (16.2) 52.4 (16.1) 50.8 (16.2) 0.646
Malignancy
 Hematological 86 (94) 48 (98) 38 (88)  
 Acute leukemia 44 (51) 32 (67) 12 (32)  
 Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 6 (7) 1 (2) 5 (13)  
 Hodgkin’s lymphoma 26 (30) 8 (17) 18 (47)  
 Othera 10 (12) 7 (15) 3 (8)  
 Breast cancer 2 (2) 0 (0) 2 (5)  
 Other solid tumorsb 4 (4) 1 (2) 3 (7)  
 Cumulative anthracycline dose (mg/m2), [IQR] 329 [200–329] 329 [180–329] 308 [200–400] 0.114
 Chest radiation 7 (8) 1 (2) 6 (14)  
Functional class at diagnosis
 NYHA class I + II 86 (94) 47 (96) 39 (91)  
 NYHA class III + IV 6 (6) 2 (4) 4 (9)  
Electrocardiogram
 Heart rhythm  
  Sinus rhythm 90 (98) 48 (98) 42 (98)
  Atrial fibrillation 2 (2) 1 (2) 1 (2)
  Heart axis     
  Normal 82 (89) 42 (86) 40 (93)  
  Left 8 (9) 5 (10) 3 (7)
 Right 2 (2) 2 (4) 0 (0)
 Ventricular conduction  
  Normal 86 (93) 45 (92) 41 (95)
  Left bundle branch block 4 (4) 2 (4) 2 (5)
  Right bundle branch block 2 (2) 2 (4) 0 (0)
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Hypertension 19 (21) 7 (14) 12 (28)  
 Diabetes Mellitus 9 (10) 3 (6) 6 (14)  
 Hyperlipidemiac 12 (17) 5 (13) 7 (19)  
 Smoking status n = 80 n = 42 n = 38  
 Former smoker 31 (39) 24 (57) 7 (18)
 Current smoker 13 (16) 6 (14) 7 (18)
 Never smoked 36 (45) 12 (29) 24 (64)
 Coronary / Peripheral Artery disease 13 (14) 8 (17) 5 (12)  
  1. Categorical variables are expressed as n (%) and continuous variables as mean (standard deviation) or median [interquartile range]; aOther hematological malignancies included chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 4), multiple myeloma (n = 3), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 2) and myelofibrosis (n = 1); bOther solid tumors included sarcomas (n = 3) and Wilms tumor (n = 1); c n = 75 patients (38 early ACD; 37 late ACD); ACD Anthracycline-induced cardiac dysfunction