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Table 1 Cardiac metastases from colorectal cancer. Review of the literature

From: Metastatic colorectal carcinoma to the right atrium: a case report and review of the literature

  Author Age (years)/ Sex Primary tumor site Primary malignancy and stage Time between initial diagnosis and discovery of cardiac metastasis (years) Diagnostic modality of cardiac metastasis Cardiac Site Tumor size (cm) Treatment Outcome Reference #
1 Henuzet (1982) [13] 60y/M Rectum NA NA TTE RV 2 Resection Dead 13
2 Nishada (1991) [14] 69y/M Colon Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma; NA 0.66 TTE and MRI RA 10 × 8 × 3 Resection Died 2 wk. after surgery 14
3 Massachussetts General Hospital (1992) [15] 75y/M Colon NA NA Autopsy RV 7.5 × 4.5 × 4 No Dead 15
4 Parravicini (1993) [16] 47y/M Rectum NA 2 Surgery RV 10 × 4 × 3.5 Resection Dead 16
5 Testempassi (1994) [17] 71y/M Colon Stage III NA MRI RV NA NA NA 17
6 Zipoli (1994) [18] 41y/F Colon M adenocarcinoma; NA NA TTE RA 4.1 × 3.7 Resection Died 6mo after resection of tumors 18
7 Teixeira (1997) [5] 81y/M Colon Mucinous adenocarcinoma; T3N0M0 (Stage II)-Duke B2 5 TTE and CT RA NA Supportive Died shortly after diagnosis of RA tumor 5
8 Lord (1999) [19] 71y/M Rectum Dukes C 3 TTE RV NA No Dead 19
9 Choufani (2001) [6] 59y/M Colon Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma; T3N1Mx (Stage III) 1.25 TTE RA 5 × 3 Chemotherapy-Irinotecan Alive at 10 mo from diagnosis of RA tumor 6
10 Koizumi (2003) [20] 65y/M Colon Well-differentiated adenocarcinoma; Stage III-Duke C NA TTE RA 6 × 5 Resection Lived for 11 mo after resection and without any chemotherapy 20
11 Oneglia (2005) [21] 70y/F Colon Duke C NA TTE, TEE RV, Tricuspid valve NA Resection Died a few hours after surgery 21
12 Lui (2004) [22] 71y/F Rectum Duke B NA TTE, CT scan, MRI RV and RVOT 5 × 3.5 Resection In hospital death 22
13 de la Fouchardière (2007) [12] 70y/F Rectum pT3N2 3.5 PET/ CT, TTE, CT scan RV 6 × 3 Resection Alive at 10 months from follow up on adjuvant chemotherapy 12
14 Moreno-Vega (2006) [23] 70y/F Colon pT3N2M1 NA TTE, CT RV NA Diagnostic pericardiocentesis In hospital death 23
15 Choi (2009) [24] 70y/M Colon Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma; T4N2M1 (Stage IV) 0 TTE RA 5.5 × 5 × 3 Resection Died 3 days postoperatively secondary to recurrent cardiac bleeding 24
16 Makhija (2009) [25] 70y/M Rectum Poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma; T3N2M1 (Stage IV) 0 TTE RA 5.6 (greatest diameter) Debulking due to invasion of tumor in RA wall Alive 4.66 years from time of diagnosis for rectal cancer 25
17 Ngow (2012) [26] 59y/M Colon Dysplastic polyp in sigmoid colon with ascites/ multiple lung nodules/ ascites (no tissue confirmation of malignancy) NA TTE RA 5 × 6 None Died prior to therapy due to cardiac arrest 26
18 Patel (2012) [4] 72y/M Colon Moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma; T4bN2bM0 (Stage III) 3 TTE and TEE RA 8.5 × 5 × 4 None Sudden cardiac death secondary to pulmonary embolism related to malignancy 4
19 Butler (2012) [10] 77y/F Rectosigmoid Rectosigmoid well differentiated adenocarcinoma, T3N1 (Stage III) s/p surgical resection, adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU, levimasole and RT 17 CT RA NA Surgery followed by chemotherapy f/u PET/CT in 6 mo shows extension, treatment started with oxaliplatin with bevacizumab 10
20 Sudo (2013) [27] 70y/F Colon cancer NA (Article in Japanese) NA NA RVOT NA Surgery Living 2mo after 27
21 Mihali (2013) [28] 56y/M Colon Stage IV-metastatic to colon adenocarcinoma with adrenal, liver, bone, and mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis and paraneoplastic polymyositis 0 Autopsy Diffuse micrometastases in myocardium NA NA Death 28
22 Pontillo (2014) [7] 70y/M Colorectal Colorectal adenocarcinoma s/p L hemicolectomy and chemotherapy in remission 7 TTE and TEE IVC into RA, also liver NA Standard medical therapy Unknown 7
23 Reisenauer (2016) [29] 67y/M Rectum Stage IIIC adenocarcinoma 1 CT Invasion into LA 7.6 Resection Alive 1 mo post-discharge 29
24 Bianchi (2016) [9] 77y/F Colon Colonic adenocarcinoma-Dukes B cancer in the descending colon s/p surgery and 6mo chemotherapy 2 PET/ CT and TTE Polylobular RA mass 4.1 × 3.5 × 3.5 Surgical excision followed by 1 cycle of FOLFIRI and bevacizumab Death 3 months later due to pulmonary embolism 9
25 Kasama (2016) [30] 72y/M Sigmoid colon Stage IIIa later stage IV (metastatic to lungs) NA CT RA NA Volume resection Dead 3 months after surgery 30
26 Namireddy (2017) [11] 51y/M Rectal Rectal adenocarcinoma-T3N1aM0 s/p surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy 1 CT and TTE RA 3.1 × 2.3 Surgery followed by systemic chemotherapy NA 11
27 Ayyala (2017) [31] 69y/F Rectal cancer Rectal adenocracinoma s/p surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy 5 TTE RA 4 × 3.5 None NA 31
28 Tsujii (2017) [8] 76y/F Colorectal Well differentiated colorectal cancer (Stage IVb: cT2N0M1b)-metastatic to heart, lung-wild type KRAS 0 TTE, CT and MRI RV 5.4 × 3.2 × 3.1 5-FU, oxaliplatin and panitumumab Alive at 2 years after diagnosis 8
29 Elbatarny (2019) [32] 59y/M Colon cancer Colon cancer s/p surgery and chemotherapy 17 TTE and cardiac MRI RV Occupied 80% RV Surgical debulking NA 32
30 Graf (2019) [33] 70s y/M Colon Stage IV adenocarcinoma (metastatic to liver) 0 TTE and CT RA/ RV/RVOT/Truncus pulmononalis microcavitations microcavitations Refused treatment Death 4 mo after diagnosis 33
31 Current 59y/M Colon NA 5 TTE and cMRI RA 8.3 × 6.5 Chemotherapy Alive  
  1. Abbreviations: VEGF Vascular Endothelial Growth factor, TEE transesophageal echocardiography, TEE transthoracic echocardiography, IVC Inferior Vena Cava, MLH MutL homolog, MSH MutS homolog, NYHA New York heart Association, SAAG Serum Ascitis Albumin Gradient, CMP Complete Metabolic Profile, CBC Complete Blood Count, PSA Prostrate Specific Antigen, CEA Carcinoembryonic Antigen, FOLFIRINOX leucovorin, fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin, NA Not Applicable